Cultural integration

Religions in Luxembourg

Luxembourg, a secular Western European nation, offers a surprising religious diversity, with Catholic majority, Protestant minority and growing presence of other religions, such as Islam, Judaism, Buddhism, and others.

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While the constitution guarantees freedom of religion, the government hasn't collected data on religious adherence since 1980. This makes it difficult to track religious trends with precision. Luxembourg maintains a strong separation of church and state, ensuring a tolerant and pluralistic society where religious minorities can flourish. A recent study conducted by the European Values Survey in Luxembourg in late 2020 and early 2021 revealed that 48% of respondents stated they do not belong to any religion.

What religions are present in the Grand Duchy?

In Luxembourg, official statistics on religious affiliation, spiritual practices, and philosophical orientations are lacking, making it challenging to precisely address the topic of religion in Luxembourg. However, there are avenues we can explore to gain insight into this complex subject.

One approach is to analyse the different nationalities and communities present in Luxembourg, while another involves examining survey-based studies. So, let's take a look at this topic using these two tools.

Nationalities and religion in Luxembourg

An analysis of the diverse communities in Luxembourg can unveil the religions practiced due to the correlation between ethnic identity and religion. Ethnic communities often uphold religious traditions from their countries of origin. For instance, the significant presence of Germans may indicate a predominantly Christian population, while the presence of Arabs could suggest adherence to Islam.

As we explored in our article dedicated to Luxembourg's population, the Grand Duchy boasts a supremely multicultural population. In 2023, out of the total population, 347,402 were Luxembourgish nationals, while 313,400 were foreign nationals, accounting for 47.4% of the population. The 9 most predominant nationalities account for 71.42% of the foreign population and are Portuguese, French, Italian, Belgian, German, Spanish, Romanian, Ukrainian, and Polish.

Created with data from Lustat
What is the main religion in Luxembourg?

Given the presence of predominantly Catholic nations among the most represented nationalities, it's reasonable to infer that Catholicism is the dominant religion. Additionally, the absence of Arab or Asian communities within these nine nationalities suggests that the Muslim population in Luxembourg or the Buddhist population is relatively limited.

While analysing the population provides a broad overview of religion in Luxembourg, it's insufficient for a comprehensive understanding of the topic, leaving many questions unanswered. 

Studies of religion in Luxembourg

To gain a more nuanced perspective, we can turn to survey-based studies. One such study, conducted by the European Values Survey in Luxembourg in late 2020 and early 2021, offers valuable insights.

According to this study, 48% of respondents declared affiliation with a religious denomination, while the remaining 52% did not. Within the former group, Catholicism overwhelmingly dominates, representing 85.3% of religious affiliations. Only 2.7% of the population identifies as Muslim, with even smaller percentages belonging to other religions such as Judaism, Evangelism, or Buddhism.

Source: Regards 03/23, Statec.
of respondents in Luxembourg declared affiliation with a religious denomination
of the religious affiliations are dominated by Catholicism
of the population identifies as Muslim

Importance of religion in Luxembourg

Moreover, this study reflects a significant decline in the importance of religion among the population. Approximately 76.31% of respondents stated that religion has little to no importance in their lives, indicating a rapid pace of secularisation.

Source: Regards 03/23, Statec.
Comparison of survey data
SecularisationEVS 2008EVS 2020
Religious affiliation75%48%
Religious people55%37%
No religion35%44%
Importance of religion42%24%
Importance of God in life61%40%

A comparison with Dickes and Borsenberger's 2011 study, based on 2008 EVS survey data, reveals a decrease in religious affiliation from 75% to 48%, a decrease in the importance of religion from 42% to 24%, and a decrease in the importance of God in life from 61% to 40%.

A closer look at religions in Luxembourg

Now that we've taken a broad view of the religious landscape in the Grand Duchy, let's delve into each religion with a bit more detail. We'll examine the approximate number of individuals practicing each religion, significant places of worship, and other pertinent details.

Catholics in Luxembourg

Luxembourg boasts a predominantly Catholic population, as we observed in the previous section, with deep-rooted Catholic traditions evident throughout the country's history. Evidence of this tradition abounds, from the numerous Catholic holidays, many of which are deeply intertwined with Luxembourg's culture, to the abundance of Luxembourg Catholic churches scattered across the nation. Regardless of size, nearly every city in Luxembourg offers religious services in Catholic churches.

Photo by Jon Tyson on Unsplash
Photo by Jon Tyson on Unsplash
Moreover, many traditions directly align with Catholic practices. Noteworthy among these are the Catholic pilgrimages, with three prominent ones in Luxembourg:

The Octave Pilgrimage

Held from the 3rd to the 5th Sunday after Easter at the Notre Dame Cathedral in Luxembourg City, this pilgrimage honors the Virgin Mary.

Our Lady of Fatima Pilgrimage

Celebrated in Wiltz on Ascension Day, this pilgrimage primarily attracts the Portuguese community.

Echternach Dancing Procession

Recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, this procession draws over 10,000 participants annually on Pentecost Tuesday, showcasing a unique blend of religious devotion and cultural heritage.
Where to find parishes?

The website lists all parishes in Luxembourg.

Protestants in Luxembourg

The history of Protestantism in Luxembourg is closely intertwined with the House of Nassau-Weilburg and the immigration of Protestants from neighboring countries. Despite the Reformation of the 16th century failing to take root in the country, Protestantism in Luxembourg traces its origins back to the Congress of Vienna in 1815. It was during this time that the Trinity Church was handed over to the Prussian garrison for Protestant worship. Protestantism primarily developed as a result of immigration by officials and workers from abroad, with religious services held predominantly in the southern region, where the steel industry was prominent.

In 1890, the Protestant Nassau-Weilburg dynasty acceded to the Luxembourg throne, and the Trinity Church became the court church until the beginning of the 20th century when the ruling house reverted to Catholicism.

Today, the Protestant Church of Luxembourg operates under a consistory system, governed by a consistory elected by its members. It represents a religious minority spread throughout the country.

5 Rue de la Congrégation, Ville-Haute Luxembourg
(+352) 22 96 70
10:00 – 18:00
10:00 – 16:00

Worships are held every Sunday at 10:00

Protestantism is the country's second-largest religion in Luxembourg, comprising just under 5% of the resident population in Luxembourg. Several Protestant places of worship exist in Luxembourg, including:

Anglicans in Luxembourg

Anglicanism, a branch of Protestantism originating in England during the 16th century, traces its roots to the Anglican Reformation. The term "Anglicanism" was first used in 1838, derived from the adjective "Anglican," found in documents since the 12th century as part of the phrase "ecclesia anglicana," meaning the English Church.

Initially synonymous with "English," the adjective gradually acquired theological nuances defining the religious stance of the Church of England against Catholics and Calvinists by the 18th century. From there, it extended to churches established by the English in other countries during the colonial expansion, shaping the meaning of the word "Anglicanism."

What is the place of worship for anglicans?

Of the approximately 7,000 British residents in Luxembourg, nearly 60% identify as Anglicans. This denomination has been present in Luxembourg for over 50 years, with the Anglican Church of Luxembourg headquartered at the Konvikt Center, 5 Avenue Marie-Thérèse in Luxembourg.

Muslims in Luxembourg

The Muslim population in Luxembourg is relatively small, with only 2.7% of respondents identifying as Muslim in the previously mentioned study. However, other analyses estimate that there are currently around 40,000 Muslims in Luxembourg, constituting approximately 6% of the country's population.

Despite its small size, the Muslim population has been steadily increasing in recent years, more than doubling in the past decade. Ten to fifteen years ago, Luxembourg had between 12,000 and 15,000 Muslims. Nevertheless, these figures are approximations, as Islam in Luxembourg remains a poorly studied and understood community. Since 1970, the last census to mention religious affiliation, it has been legally prohibited, under the law of March 31, 1979, to collect data on religious affiliation through a census. Therefore, estimates of the number of Muslims living in Luxembourg are based on national origin, which is not a reliable indicator of religious affiliation.

individuals are the estimated number of Muslims in Luxembourg
is the estimated percentage of muslim population in Luxembourg

Despite the challenges in studying this community, it is known that over half of Luxembourg's Muslim community currently consists of individuals of Bosnian, Kosovar, or Albanian origin. They are followed by individuals of Maghrebi (Moroccan, Tunisian, Algerian) and Syrian descent.

One of the primary gathering places for this community is the Le Juste Milieu Mosque (LJM). The LJM, operating voluntarily, pursues various objectives in line with both Islamic principles and Luxembourgish legislation.

32 Dernier Sol, Bouneweg-Süd Luxembourg
(+352) 26 48 11 53
9:00 – 18:00

LJM also aims to educate the Luxembourgish public about Islam and its culture while fostering friendly relations between Luxembourg and the Muslim community.

Jewish in Luxembourg

The history of Jews in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg dates back to 1276, the first documented mention of Jews in the city of Luxembourg. In the early 19th century, Luxembourg was home to around fifteen Jewish families. While their numbers increased rapidly, they remained relatively small: in 1808, 75 Jews were recorded, with over 150 families in Gutland by 1880.

During its peak in the 1930s, over 4,000 Jews lived in Luxembourg, largely due to recent immigration from Eastern Europe. However, the Jewish community suffered deportation and extermination during World War II, significantly reducing its numbers. Since the latter half of the 20th century, the Jewish population has not experienced growth, unlike the general population. Approximately 700 Jews, comprising around 300 to 350 families, including diplomats and expatriates, reside in Luxembourg today, constituting one of the country's largest ethnic minorities. Most reside in Luxembourg City, with a smaller community in Esch-sur-Alzette.

Jews approximately are currently living in Luxembourg
families currently live in Luxembourg
Jews lived in Luxembourg at its peak in the 1930s

A new Consistory was established in Luxembourg after World War II, serving as the headquarters of the Jewish community in Luxembourg.

Jewish Consistory of Luxembourg, source: Jewish Consistory of Luxembourg
45 Av. Monterey, Ville-Haute Luxembourg
(+352) 45 29 14 20
10:00 – 18:00
Take your ID

To visit synagogue you may need to present your identification papers currently.

Buddhists in Luxembourg

Buddhism began to establish itself in Luxembourg in the 1980s with the foundation of several centers of the Nyingmapa tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, as well as Zen Buddhism centers.

Buddhism meditation in Luxembourg
Photo by John Thomas on Unsplash

Tibetan cultural center

Tibetan Cultural Center of Luxembourg, founded by Lama Jigmé Namgyal to share Tibetan cultural knowledge with Luxembourgish society. The center hosts a wide variety of events, including yoga courses, meditation sessions, Buddhist teachings, and cultural events.
Address: 1 Rue Charlotte Engels, Eich LuxembourgPhone: (+352) 26 68 43 29  Website: 

Zen Buddhism

Centre de Méditation Zen Soto Luxembourg (CMZL), established through the initiative of practitioners who regularly visit the Ryumonji Zen monastery, located two hours away by car. The dojo was founded in January 2019. This meditation group follows the lineage of Soto Zen Buddhism, under the guidance of Zen master Olivier Reigen Wang-Genh, the abbot of Ryumonji monastery.Address: 5g Av. Marie-Thérèse, Hollerich LuxembourgPhone: (+352) 6 21 27 25 51 Website: 

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

What is the predominant religion in Luxembourg?

How diverse is the religious landscape in Luxembourg?

Are there official statistics on religious affiliation in Luxembourg?

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We took photos from these sources: Unsplash, Le Juste Milieu Facebook Page, Jewish Consistory of Luxembourg,, Tibetan Cultural Centre

Authors: Luz
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