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Citizenship

Luxembourg's Political System Guide

In this guide, you will learn about the political structure of the Grand Duchy, its representatives, political parties and leaders, past and upcoming elections, how to vote, and other important details.

Last time updated
29.04.24

Luxembourg is a constitutional monarchy, meaning that it has a monarch as its head of state. In addition to the constitutional monarchy, the country operates as a parliamentary democracy. This means that the government is elected by the members of the parliament, who in turn are elected by the people.

Grand Duke Henri was born on April 16, 1955, and became Grand Duke of Luxembourg on October 7, 2000, following his father, Grand Duke Jean. In 1981, he married Maria Teresa Mestre, who became Grand Duchess Maria Teresa of Luxembourg. The couple has five children – Prince Guillaume, Prince Félix, Prince Louis, Princess Alexandra and Prince Sébastien.

The Grand Duke performs a range of ceremonial duties
Representation of Luxembourg both at home and abroad
Inauguration of the Parliament and its elected members
Signing of bills, introduction of laws to the legislation system

The monarchical and governmental powers are distinctly separated. It is the State, not the Sovereign, that is answerable to the local Parliament and thus to the citizens of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.

There are three branches of power in the Grand Duchy. Each of them has its own structure and is responsible for the administration of the country in the domain.

Law-making

Chamber of Deputies, D'Chamber
Council of State, Staatsrot

Enforcing laws

Government
Ministries
Elections
Parties
Leaders

Political figures in Luxembourg

Interpreting laws

Courts

The Government uses the powers granted to it by the Constitution of 1868. All ministers answer to the Chamber of Deputies also known as Parliament, the legislative body, which is elected every 5 years and has 60 seats for the candidates from different political parties in Luxembourg.

These candidates are elected by the nation, and the last general elections were held in October 2023.

Leaders of the gouvernement

Luc Frieden
Prime Minister
The country is currently led by the Prime Minister from the Christian Social People's Party (CSV). Luc Frieden has been previously serving in office since 1994, acting as Minister of Finance, Minister of Defense, and Minister of the Interior. He came back to the office following the elections in October 2023 as formateur and Prime Minister after his coalition won in the legislative elections.
Xavier Bettel
Vice Prime Minister
A prominent leader of the Democratic Party, he first took office as Prime Minister in December 2013. After serving for 10 years, he transitioned to the role of Vice-Prime Minister and took the role of Minister of Foreign Affairs. This change occurred following the formation of the Frieden-Bettel government on November 17, 2023.
Did you know?

Having two deputy prime ministers can be a strategic move to efficiently distribute important responsibilities and expertise, ensuring that the government can function effectively and adequately address a wide range of issues. The previous government formation, led by two prime ministers – Paulette Lenert and Francois Baush – had this dual structure.

The country's politics are coalition-based, with parties working together to form the government. The CSV is still a dominant force in the Chamber, and the current government is led by a parties coalition, demonstrating the multiparty democratic system in action. It is called the Frieden-Bettel government and compromises politics from both DP and CSV.

The political scene in Luxembourg is vibrant with several parties representing a range of ideologies, from centrist to left-wing, with different histories, manifestos and campaign approaches. Here is an overview of the most prominent Luxembourgish political groups.

These candidates are elected by the nation, and the previous general elections were held in October 2023, resulting in a formation of a new governement led by Frieden and Bettel.

Major parties

The present government is center-right, and is led by a coalition of the two major and oldest political parties in Luxembourg — Democratic Party and Christian Social People's Party. The CSV historically holds the majority of seats in the Chamber of Deputies and remains a prominent power in the country with Prime Minister Luc Frieden serving the state. And while DP has not secured enough support to stay leading power, it is still widely represented in the current coalition through ministers.

Though Greens and Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party did not enter the current coalition government in 2023, they still hold seats in the Chamber of Deputies and remain a prominent political force in Luxembourg.

Christian Social People's Party
Views: Christian democratic
Leader: Claude Wiseler and Elisabeth Margue
Traditionally the strongest party in Luxembourg, it has been the senior partner in most governing coalitions since the Second World War. Taking prominent role in the current government, it remains a powerful force in Luxembourg politics with the majority membership in the Chamber of Deputies — 21 seats are taken by this party.
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Democratic Party
Views: Liberal
Leader: Lex Delles
The party's electorate is mostly the self-employed, the business community, and the urban upper middle class. It is pro-NATO and advocates a secular state. Former Prime Minister Xavier Bettel has been serving as president of a Democratic Party for years.
Luxembourg Socialist Worker's Party
Views: Social democratic
Leader: Dan Biancalana and Francine Closener
A prominent pro-European governing faction in Luxembourg. Situated on the center-left of the political spectrum, it secured 11 out of 60 seats in the Chamber of Deputies in 2023. The party also holds a seat in the European Parliament.
The Greens Party
Views: Environmentalism
Leader: Djuna Bernard and Meris Šehović
The Greens focus on promoting sustainable development, green tax reforms, the use of renewable energy and improving energy efficiency. They also support equal opportunities for migrants in Luxembourg, which is known for its multicultural society. Following the 2023 elections, the party has lost 5 seats in the Chamber.

Opposition parties

In a parliamentary democracy like Luxembourg, parties find themselves in opposition due to a variety of reasons, often stemming from differences in policy, ideology, or electoral outcomes. 

The opposition refers to the political forces, such as parties, that are not part of the ruling governing alliance.

Alternative Democratic Reform Party
Views: National conservative
Leader: Fred Keup
The party advocates the preservation and promotion of the Luxembourgish language as one of its main ideas. It is sometimes described as a mildly populist right-wing party. ADR is represented in the national legislature and emphasizes Luxembourg's traditions and national identity.
The Left
Views: Democratic socialist
Leader: Collective
Formed in 1999, it has maintained a presence in the Chamber of Deputies since 2013. Decade later it continues to hold 2 seats in the Chamber of Deputies, advocating for socialist policies and workers' rights agenda.
Pirate Party
Views: Democratic
Leader: Sven Clement
Founded in 2009, it entered the Chamber of Deputies in 2018. The party represents a newer, tech-savvy generation of voters. They aim for changes to copyright and patent laws, emphasizing the need for privacy, free access to information, and net neutrality. In 2023, the party has secured an additional seat in Chamber, making it the 6th in the list with 3 seats total.
Communist Party
Views: Communist
Leader: Ali Ruckert
From World War II through the 1960s, communists maintained a strong presence in the national legislature. Most recently it was represented in the national legislature in 1999. Currently, the party holds no seats in the national or European legislature, with diminished support, especially in the industrialized south.

Newly emerged parties

Beyond the parties that are familiar to voters and even participate in the state process, political life does not stand still. New political factions are emerging in Luxembourg, offering voters fresh ideas and a new perspective.

The Conservatives
Views: National conservative
Leader: Joe Thein
Founded in 2017, following a split from the Alternative Democratic Reform Party, Déi Konservativ is rooted in conservative and patriotic principles. Under the leadership of Joe Thein, the party participated in several elections since its inception, but has yet to secure a seat in any national, European, or local council.
Liberté - Fräiheet!
Views: Liberal
Leader: Roy Reding
It is a citizens' movement for freedom of expression, human rights and other initiatives. The party was created in the summer of 2023, bringing together 60 like-minded people. The name combines the French word "Liberté" and the Luxembourgish word "Fräiheet", both meaning "freedom".
Focus
Views: Pragmatic centrism
Leader: Frank Engel
This political party was founded in the beginning of 2022. Fokus is the result of a collaboration between former members of the CSV, the DP and the Greens. The party operates without a fixed ideology and has a pragmatic approach to politics. Frank Engel leads the party as main candidate for elections, and Marc Ruppert holds the position of president.
Volt
Views: European federalism
Leaders: Francesca Romana D'Antuono and Reinier van Lanschot
Formed after Brexit in 2016, Bolt's party brought together three European politicians concerned about the rise of right-wing populism in the region's politics. Volt is a pan-European organization: it exists in over 30 different European countries and runs for elections. In Luxembourg, party has been a candidate in the 2023 legislative elections but did not secure any seats.

Earlier this year, the 2023 Luxembourg legislative elections marked a crucial step in local governance changing the ruling coalition and gaining a new Prime Minister. However, the spotlight now shifts to the upcoming European Parliament elections, scheduled in June of 2024. 

In the 2024 parliamentary elections, Luxembourg's citizens will cast their votes to select representatives for the European Parliament, also known as MP. As of now, Luxembourg is entitled to 6 seats in the European Parliament. These seats will be distributed among various political parties based on their performance in the election polls.

In Luxembourg, all eligible voters are required to vote to ensure that election outcomes represent the entire population. There will be a single electoral constituency presented. If you can't vote, you need to give a valid reason along with appropriate proof to the relevant State Prosecutor.

Once registered, voting is compulsory in future elections, and this registration is separate from municipal election registration. If you do not vote, you can be fined!

Check if you can vote in June 2024

In Luxembourg, you are automatically allowed to vote if you are registered on the electoral rolls, a task managed by the local government in the commune. The Parliamentary elections in Europe take place simultaneously across 27 countries, including Luxembourg. Residents of Luxembourg from other countries have the option to vote either from their home country or in Luxembourg. To vote in Luxembourg, they need to register with their local commune.

One's eligibility to vote in European Parliament elections in Luxembourg requires
Check yourself
Once you meet the criteria for voter eligibility, you can participate in the election and give your vote to a candidate that is near and dear to your heart.
*The mandatory items are marked with red asterisks.
European Union nationality, including Luxembourg or other citizenship present,
Attainment of 18 years of age on or before the day of the elections,
Full civil and political rights within EU,
Rrevious or current registration on voting polls.
Check yourself
Once you meet the criteria for voter eligibility, you can participate in the election and give your vote to a candidate that is near and dear to your heart.
*The mandatory items are marked with red asterisks.

Give your vote to the candidates

When it comes to casting your vote, you have two options: voting in person at polling stations or voting by correspondence. Luxembourg citizens residing abroad are allowed to participate in elections through postal voting.

  1. The College of the Mayor and Aldermen sends a letter to each voter at least 5 days before the election. This letter includes the date, opening and closing times, and location of the polling station provided for the specific voter.
  2. On election day (for example, Sunday, June 9) you must visit the polling station to give your voice to the candidates of your choice. Bring your ID card or passport for identification.
  3. Mark your preference, choose the candidates, and fill your ballot at the polling station to submit your votes. Then wait for the results of the elections, you can find them online, on the television and read in the newspapers.
Elections
Voting
Parties
Local electoral system in Luxembourg
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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

How many political parties does Luxembourg have?

How to participate in European elections in Luxembourg in 2024?

What if I can't vote on elections day?

We took photos from these sources: Monarchie.lu, gouvernement.lu, CSV Facebook Page, ADR website, Conservatives website, LSAP website, DP website, Greens website, Pirates website, KPL website, Fokus website, Left website, Volt website, Liberté website, Democratic Party Flickr page, Chamber of Deputies website, European Commission website, CSV website by Max Hein, SIP by Julien Warnand

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